Document Type : Review Article
- Naghmana Kanwal 1
- Othman Rashid Al Samarrai 2
- Haider Majid Haider Al-Zaidi 3
- Ali Reza Mirzaei 4
- Mohammad Javad Heidari 5
1 Department of Health Care Biotechnology, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad, Pakistan
2 Applied Chemistry Department, College of Applied Science, University of Samarra, Samarra, Iraq
3 Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Ibn Sina University of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Baghdad, Iraq
4 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
5 Faculty of Pharmacy, Cyprus International University, Lefkosa, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Lefkosa, Cyprus
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a group of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the RNA level. MicroRNAs have positive regulatory effects on protein translation processes and often induce their performance by binding to the 3'-UTR mRNA region. Also, microRNAs are involved in various cellular processes, including development, cell division, cell signaling, and cell growth, and generally play an effective role in the cell cycle and control of physiological processes and cell pathology. Several studies confirm that microRNAs play an important role in the initiation and progression of cancer, and many of them act as oncogenes and tumor suppressors. On the other hand, microRNAs are important stimulating factors that can act as biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of various types of cancer, and in many cases, the occurrence of mutations in microRNAs and open-reading templates can lead to cancer. MicroRNAs also play an effective role in regulating gene expression. Biological studies have shown that about 30% of all genes and the majority of genetic pathways are regulated by microRNAs. In general, microRNAs and their target molecules are potential biological goals for primary screening, targeted treatment, and pharmaceutical resistance, and identifying them provides a clear prospect for a better understanding of the pathways leading to cancer.
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