The DNA polymorphisms found in clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drive altered physiology, virulence, and pathogenesis in them. This study aimed to investigate the association between IL23R 1142 G/A (Arg381Gln) and GM-CSF 3928 C/T (Ile117Thr) gene polymorphisms with the incidence rate of tuberculosis in the population of Sistan. This study was based on the descriptive and applied type. All patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis were referred to the tuberculosis center of Zabol city for one year, with an equal number of healthy people adapted to the patients examined in terms of age. After data collecting to compare the frequency of polymorphisms, the chi-square test and OR index were used using SPSS software version 16. We have found that the IL23R reduced-function allele 1142A and genotypes CC and TC were overrepresented, especially in the Pad subgroup compared with the control group (44% versus 42%, 21% versus 22%, and 44% versus 39%, respectively. Increased risks of TB with minimal/moderate lung involvement, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the reduced-function polymorphism 1142G ¡ A encoded by IL23R influences the outcome of disease severity of active pulmonary TB in ZABOL patients. The genotypic and allelic frequency of IL23R 1142 G/A, and GM-CSF 3928 C/T (Ile117Thr) polymorphism in patients with tuberculosis was significantly different from the control group and this polymorphism was associated with the incidence of tuberculosis in the population of Sistan.
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