Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of biological science, Faculty of Science, Kurdistan University, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran

2 Nanobiotechnology Department, Faculty of Innovative Science and Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

3 Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, 2028, South Africa

4 Wellman Centre for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA

5 Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA

6 Australasian Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (ANNI), 8054 Monash University LPO, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia

7 Supreme Pharmatech Co. LTD, 399/90-95 Moo 13 Kingkaew Rd. Soi 25/1, T. Rachateva, A. Bangplee, Samutprakan 10540, Thailand

8 Laboratory of Pharmacology and Molecular Chemistry; Department of Biological Chemistry; Regional University of Cariri; Rua Coronel Antônio Luis 1161, Pimenta, CEP 63105-000, Crato, Ceará, Brazil

9 Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology; Department of Biological Chemistry; Regional University of Cariri; Rua Coronel Antônio Luis 1161, Pimenta, CEP 63105-000, Crato, Ceará, Brazil


Bacterial infections can be caused by contamination of labile blood products with specific bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Hospital equipment, bio-protective equipment, delivery systems, and medical devices can be easily contaminated by microorganisms. Multidrug-resistant bacteria can survive on various organic or inorganic polymeric materials for more than 90 days. Inhibiting the growth and eradicating these microorganisms is vital in blood transfusion processes. Blood bags and other related medical devices can be improved by the incorporation of organic or inorganic nanomaterials, particularly silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles. The addition of solid organic or inorganic nanoparticles to synthetic polymers or biopolymers can provide new properties in addition to antimicrobial activity. Among these NPs, formulations composed of SiO2 nanoparticles and polymers have been shown to improve the mechanical and antimicrobial properties of catheters, prosthetic inserts, blood bags, and other medical devices SiO2 nanoparticles possess several advantages, including large-scale synthetic availability, simple one-pot synthesis methods, porous structure for loading antibacterial agents, good biocompatibility, and thermal stability. Plasticized polyvinyl chloride is the main polymer, which has been functionalized by these nanoparticles. In this review, we discuss the recent advances and challenges regarding the functionalization of polyvinyl chloride by SiO2 nanoparticles to hinder bacterial contaminations in blood products.  

Graphical Abstract

Surface modification of SiO2 nanoparticles for bacterial decontaminations of blood products


Main Subjects

Selected author of this article by journal

ِDr. Michael R Hamblin
University of Johannesburg

GoogleScholar(H Index=138); Publons(H Index=109)

Open Access

This article is licensed under a CC BY License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


Publisher’s Note

CMBR journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional afflictions.


Letters to Editor

Given that CMBR Journal's policy in accepting articles will be strict and will do its best to ensure that in addition to having the highest quality published articles, the published articles should have the least similarity (maximum 15%). Also, all the figures and tables in the article must be original and the copyright permission of images must be prepared by authors. However, some articles may have flaws and have passed the journal filter, which dear authors may find fault with. Therefore, the editor of the journal asks the authors, if they see an error in the published articles of the journal, to email the article information along with the documents to the journal office.

CMBR Journal welcomes letters to the editor ([email protected], [email protected]) for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Critical letters can be sent to the journal editor as soon as the article is online. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] There is no limit to the number of words in a letter.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include Name, Email Address, Affiliation, mobile phone number, and Comments.

[7] Letters will be answered as soon as possible.

  1. Lin CK, Leung JNS, So BKL, Lee CK (2014) Donor selection for blood safety: is it still necessary? ISBT Science Series 9(1):26-29. doi:
  2. Murphy MF, Stanworth SJ, Yazer M (2011) Transfusion practice and safety: current status and possibilities for improvement. Vox Sanguinis 100(1):46-59. doi:
  3. Basu D, Kulkarni R (2014) Overview of blood components and their preparation. Indian J Anaesth 58(5):529-537. doi:
  4. Innerhofer P, Fries D, Mittermayr M, Innerhofer N, von Langen D, Hell T, Gruber G, Schmid S, Friesenecker B, Lorenz IH, Ströhle M, Rastner V, Trübsbach S, Raab H, Treml B, Wally D, Treichl B, Mayr A, Kranewitter C, Oswald E (2017) Reversal of trauma-induced coagulopathy using first-line coagulation factor concentrates or fresh frozen plasma (RETIC): a single-centre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised trial. The Lancet Haematology 4(6):e258-e271. doi:
  5. Bresnick EH, Hewitt KJ, Mehta C, Keles S, Paulson RF, Johnson KD (2018) Mechanisms of erythrocyte development and regeneration: implications for regenerative medicine and beyond. Development 145(1):dev151423. doi:
  6. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines on prevention and management of bleeding and thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis (2022). Journal of Hepatology). doi:
  7. Kumar H, Gupta PK, Mishra DK, Sarkar RS, Jaiprakash M (2006) Leucodepletion and Blood Products. Med J Armed Forces India 62(2):174-177. doi:
  8. Hadjesfandiari N, Khorshidfar M, Devine DV (2021) Current Understanding of the Relationship between Blood Donor Variability and Blood Component Quality. International journal of molecular sciences 22(8):3943. doi:
  9. Beliën J, Forcé H (2012) Supply chain management of blood products: A literature review. European Journal of Operational Research 217(1):1-16. doi:
  10. Lacetera N, Macis M, Slonim R (2012) Will There Be Blood? Incentives and Displacement Effects in Pro-social Behavior. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 4(1):186-223. doi:
  11. Kiss JE, Vassallo RR (2018) How do we manage iron deficiency after blood donation? British Journal of Haematology 181(5):590-603. doi:
  12. Gifford SC, Strachan BC, Xia H, Vörös E, Torabian K, Tomasino TA, Griffin GD, Lichtiger B, Aung FM, Shevkoplyas SS (2018) A portable system for processing donated whole blood into high quality components without centrifugation. PLoS One 13(1):e0190827. doi:
  13. Chell K, Davison TE, Masser B, Jensen K (2018) A systematic review of incentives in blood donation. Transfusion 58(1):242-254. doi:
  14. Chen Z, Sun Y (2006) N-Halamine-Based Antimicrobial Additives for Polymers: Preparation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity. Ind Eng Chem Res 45(8):2634-2640. doi:
  15. Dietvorst J, Vilaplana L, Uria N, Marco M-P, Muñoz-Berbel X (2020) Current and near-future technologies for antibiotic susceptibility testing and resistant bacteria detection. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 127:115891. doi:
  16. Rajapaksha P, Elbourne A, Gangadoo S, Brown R, Cozzolino D, Chapman J (2019) A review of methods for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms. Analyst 144(2):396-411. doi:
  17. Abbas-Al-Khafaji ZK, Aubais-aljelehawy Qh (2021) Evaluation of antibiotic resistance and prevalence of multi-antibiotic resistant genes among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from patients admitted to al-yarmouk hospital. Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Reports 1(2):60-68. doi:
  18. Almasian-Tehrani N, Alebouyeh M, Armin S, Soleimani N, Azimi L, Shaker-Darabad R (2021) Overview of typing techniques as molecular epidemiology tools for bacterial characterization. Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Reports 1(2):69-77. doi:
  19. Franza T, Rogstam A, Thiyagarajan S, Sullivan MJ, Derré-Bobillot A, Bauer MC, Goh KGK, Da Cunha V, Glaser P, Logan DT, Ulett GC, von Wachenfeldt C, Gaudu P (2021) NAD+ pool depletion as a signal for the Rex regulon involved in Streptococcus agalactiae virulence. PLOS Pathogens 17(8):e1009791. doi:
  20. Liang H, Mao Y, Sun Y, Gao H (2019) Transcriptional regulator ArcA mediates expression of oligopeptide transport systems both directly and indirectly in Shewanella oneidensis. Scientific Reports 9(1):13839. doi:
  21. Aubais aljelehawy Qh, Hadi Alshaibah LH, Abbas Al- Khafaji ZK (2021) Evaluation of virulence factors among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infection in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf teaching hospital. Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Reports 1(2):78-87. doi:
  22. Brecher Mark E, Hay Shauna N (2005) Bacterial Contamination of Blood Components. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 18(1):195-204. doi:
  23. Dreier J, Störmer M, Kleesiek K (2007) Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction in Transfusion Medicine: Applications for Detection of Bacterial Contamination in Blood Products. Transfusion Medicine Reviews 21(3):237-254. doi:
  24. Levy JH, Neal MD, Herman JH (2018) Bacterial contamination of platelets for transfusion: strategies for prevention. Critical Care 22(1):271. doi:
  25. Di Gaudio F, Indelicato S, Indelicato S, Tricoli MR, Stampone G, Bongiorno D (2018) Improvement of a rapid direct blood culture microbial identification protocol using MALDI-TOF MS and performance comparison with SepsiTyper kit. Journal of Microbiological Methods 155:1-7. doi:
  26. Godbey EA, Thibodeaux SR (2019) Ensuring safety of the blood supply in the United States: Donor screening, testing, emerging pathogens, and pathogen inactivation. Seminars in Hematology 56(4):229-235. doi:
  27. Saravani K, Afshari M, Aminisefat A, Bameri O (2021) Blood Sugar Changes in Patients with Acute Drug Poisoning. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 1(2):91-97. doi:
  28. Crawford E, Kamm J, Miller S, Li LM, Caldera S, Lyden A, Yokoe D, Nichols A, Tran NK, Barnard SE, Conner PM, Nambiar A, Zinter MS, Moayeri M, Serpa PH, Prince BC, Quan J, Sit R, Tan M, Phelps M, Derisi JL, Tato CM, Langelier C (2020) Investigating Transfusion-related Sepsis Using Culture-Independent Metagenomic Sequencing. Clinical Infectious Diseases 71(5):1179-1185. doi:
  29. Panch SR, Bikkani T, Vargas V, Procter J, Atkins JW, Guptill V, Frank KM, Lau AF, Stroncek DF (2019) Prospective Evaluation of a Practical Guideline for Managing Positive Sterility Test Results in Cell Therapy Products. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 25(1):172-178. doi:
  30. Zhu Z, Wang Z, Li S, Yuan X (2019) Antimicrobial strategies for urinary catheters. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 107(2):445-467. doi:
  31. Erythropel HC, Maric M, Nicell JA, Leask RL, Yargeau V (2014) Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 98(24):9967-9981. doi:
  32. Hasirci V, Hasirci N (2018) Polymers as Biomaterials. In: Hasirci V, Hasirci N (eds) Fundamentals of Biomaterials. Springer New York, New York, NY, pp 65-82. doi:
  33. Madhumanchi S, Srichana T, Domb AJ (2021) Polymeric Biomaterials. In: Narayan R (ed) Biomedical Materials. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 49-100. doi:
  34. Tokhadzé N, Chennell P, Pereira B, Mailhot-Jensen B, Sautou V (2021) Critical Drug Loss Induced by Silicone and Polyurethane Implantable Catheters in a Simulated Infusion Setup with Three Model Drugs. Pharmaceutics 13(10). doi:
  35. Costoya A, Velázquez Becerra LE, Meléndez-Ortiz HI, Díaz-Gómez L, Mayer C, Otero A, Concheiro A, Bucio E, Alvarez-Lorenzo C (2019) Immobilization of antimicrobial and anti-quorum sensing enzymes onto GMA-grafted poly(vinyl chloride) catheters. Int J Pharm 558:72-81. doi:
  36. Zaokari Y, Persaud A, Ibrahim A (2020) Biomaterials for Adhesion in Orthopedic Applications: A Review. Engineered Regeneration 1:51-63. doi:
  37. Zare M, Ghomi ER, Venkatraman PD, Ramakrishna S (2021) Silicone-based biomaterials for biomedical applications: Antimicrobial strategies and 3D printing technologies. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 138(38):50969. doi:
  38. Xu C-a, Chen G, Tan Z, Hu Z, Qu Z, Zhang Q, Lu M, Wu K, Lu M, Liang L (2020) Evaluation of cytotoxicity in vitro and properties of polysiloxane-based polyurethane/lignin elastomers. Reactive and Functional Polymers 149:104514. doi:
  39. Xu C-A, Nan B, Lu M, Qu Z, Tan Z, Wu K, Shi J (2020) Effects of polysiloxanes with different molecular weights on in vitro cytotoxicity and properties of polyurethane/cotton–cellulose nanofiber nanocomposite films. Polymer Chemistry 11(32):5225-5237. doi:
  40. Aymes-Chodur C, Salmi-Mani H, Dragoe D, Aubry-Barroca N, Buchotte M, Roger P (2021) Optimization of microwave plasma treatment conditions on polydimethylsiloxane films for further surface functionalization. European Polymer Journal 150:110416. doi:
  41. Chouirfa H, Bouloussa H, Migonney V, Falentin-Daudré C (2019) Review of titanium surface modification techniques and coatings for antibacterial applications. Acta Biomaterialia 83:37-54. doi:
  42. Hage M, Khelissa S, Akoum H, Chihib N-E, Jama C (2022) Cold plasma surface treatments to prevent biofilm formation in food industries and medical sectors. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 106(1):81-100. doi:
  43. Alavi M, Webster TJ (2021) Recent progress and challenges for polymeric microsphere compared to nanosphere drug release systems: Is there a real difference? Bioorg Med Chem 33:116028. doi:
  44. Alavi M, Rai M (2020) Topical delivery of growth factors and metal/metal oxide nanoparticles to infected wounds by polymeric nanoparticles: an overview. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther 18(10):1021-1032. doi:
  45. Alavi M, Nokhodchi A (2022) Micro- and nanoformulations of paclitaxel based on micelles, liposomes, cubosomes, and lipid nanoparticles: Recent advances and challenges. Drug Discovery Today 27(2):576-584. doi:
  46. Sun W, Liu W, Wu Z, Chen H (2020) Chemical Surface Modification of Polymeric Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications. Macromolecular Rapid Communications 41(8):1900430. doi:
  47. Yin L, Liu L, Zhang N (2021) Brush-like polymers: design, synthesis and applications. Chemical Communications 57(81):10484-10499. doi:
  48. Liu M, Li S, Wang H, Jiang R, Zhou X (2021) Research progress of environmentally friendly marine antifouling coatings. Polymer Chemistry 12(26):3702-3720. doi:
  49. Altinkok C, Karabulut HRF, Tasdelen MA, Acik G (2020) Bile acid bearing poly (vinyl chloride) nanofibers by combination of CuAAC click chemistry and electrospinning process. Materials Today Communications 25:101425. doi:
  50. Venkatesan R, Rajeswari N (2019) Preparation, Mechanical and Antimicrobial Properties of SiO2/ Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) Films for Active Food Packaging. Silicon 11(5):2233-2239. doi:
  51. Shen W, He P, Xiao C, Chen X (2018) From Antimicrobial Peptides to Antimicrobial Poly(α-amino acid)s. Adv Healthc Mater 7(20):1800354. doi:
  52. Yu L, Li K, Zhang J, Jin H, Saleem A, Song Q, Jia Q, Li P (2022) Antimicrobial Peptides and Macromolecules for Combating Microbial Infections: From Agents to Interfaces. ACS Applied Bio Materials 5(2):366-393. doi:
  53. Alavi M, Nokhodchi A (2022) Antimicrobial and wound healing activities of electrospun nanofibers based on functionalized carbohydrates and proteins. Cellulose 29(3):1331-1347. doi:10.1007/s10570-021-04412-6
  54. Alavi M (2022) Bacteria and fungi as major bio-sources to fabricate silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activities. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther):1-10. doi:10.1080/14787210.2022.2045194
  55. Alavi M, Karimi N (2022) Antibacterial, hemoglobin/albumin-interaction, and molecular docking properties of phytogenic AgNPs functionalized by three antibiotics of penicillin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline. Microbial Pathogenesis 164:105427. doi:
  56. Alavi M, Varma RS (2021) Antibacterial and wound healing activities of silver nanoparticles embedded in cellulose compared to other polysaccharides and protein polymers. Cellulose 28(13):8295-8311. doi:10.1007/s10570-021-04067-3
  57. Colino CI, Lanao JM, Gutierrez-Millan C (2021) Recent advances in functionalized nanomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections. Materials Science and Engineering: C 121:111843. doi:
  58. Selvarajan V, Obuobi S, Ee PLR (2020) Silica Nanoparticles—A Versatile Tool for the Treatment of Bacterial Infections. Frontiers in Chemistry 8. doi:
  59. Adinarayana TVS, Mishra A, Singhal I, Koti Reddy DVR (2020) Facile green synthesis of silicon nanoparticles from Equisetum arvense for fluorescence based detection of Fe(iii) ions. Nanoscale Advances 2(9):4125-4132. doi:
  60. Fonseca S, Cayer M-P, Ahmmed KMT, Khadem-Mohtaram N, Charette SJ, Brouard D (2022) Characterization of the Antibacterial Activity of an SiO(2) Nanoparticular Coating to Prevent Bacterial Contamination in Blood Products. Antibiotics (Basel) 11(1):107. doi:
  61. Tallet L, Gribova V, Ploux L, Vrana NE, Lavalle P (2021) New Smart Antimicrobial Hydrogels, Nanomaterials, and Coatings: Earlier Action, More Specific, Better Dosing? Adv Healthc Mater 10(1):2001199. doi:
  62. Liu K, Zhang F, Wei Y, Hu Q, Luo Q, Chen C, Wang J, Yang L, Luo R, Wang Y (2021) Dressing Blood-Contacting Materials by a Stable Hydrogel Coating with Embedded Antimicrobial Peptides for Robust Antibacterial and Antithrombus Properties. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 13(33):38947-38958. doi:
  63. Sheridan M, Winters C, Zamboni F, Collins MN (2022) Biomaterials: Antimicrobial surfaces in biomedical engineering and healthcare. Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering 22:100373. doi:
  64. Vladkova TG, Staneva AD, Gospodinova DN (2020) Surface engineered biomaterials and ureteral stents inhibiting biofilm formation and encrustation. Surface and Coatings Technology 404:126424. doi:
  65. Moustafa H, Darwish NA, Youssef AM (2022) Rational formulations of sustainable polyurethane/chitin/rosin composites reinforced with ZnO-doped-SiO2 nanoparticles for green packaging applications. Food Chemistry 371:131193. doi:
  66. Sánchez SV, Navarro N, Catalán-Figueroa J, Morales JO (2021) Nanoparticles as Potential Novel Therapies for Urinary Tract Infections. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology 11:656496-656496. doi:
  67. Allafchian A, Hosseini SS (2019) Antibacterial magnetic nanoparticles for therapeutics: a review. IET nanobiotechnology 13(8):786-799. doi:
  68. Jiménez-Jiménez C, Moreno VM, Vallet-Regí M (2022) Bacteria-Assisted Transport of Nanomaterials to Improve Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy. Nanomaterials 12(2). doi:
  69. Silhavy TJ, Kahne D, Walker S (2010) The bacterial cell envelope. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2(5):a000414-a000414. doi:
  70. Alavi M, Rai M, Martinez F, Kahrizi D, Khan H, Rose Alencar de Menezes I, Douglas Melo Coutinho H, Costa JGM (2022) The efficiency of metal, metal oxide, and metalloid nanoparticles against cancer cells and bacterial pathogens: different mechanisms of action. Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Reports 2(1):10-21. doi:10.55705/cmbr.2022.147090.1023
  71. Alavi M, Rai M (2021) Antisense RNA, the modified CRISPR-Cas9, and metal/metal oxide nanoparticles to inactivate pathogenic bacteria. Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Reports 1(2):52-59. doi:
  72. Alavi M, Karimi N (2020) Hemoglobin self-assembly and antibacterial activities of bio-modified Ag-MgO nanocomposites by different concentrations of Artemisia haussknechtii and Protoparmeliopsis muralis extracts. Int J Biol Macromol 152:1174-1185. doi:
  73. Assis M, Simoes LGP, Tremiliosi GC, Coelho D, Minozzi DT, Santos RI, Vilela DCB, Santos JRd, Ribeiro LK, Rosa ILV, Mascaro LH, Andrés J, Longo E (2021) SiO2-Ag Composite as a Highly Virucidal Material: A Roadmap that Rapidly Eliminates SARS-CoV-2. Nanomaterials 11(3):638. doi: