The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium guajava plant on bone marrow cells in rats and it will be extended to humans. Guava plant leaves were collected from Chabahar region in Sistan and Baluchistan province and dried. 40 adult male rats were assigned to one control group and three experimental groups (subjects that were administeredhydroalcoholic extract of P. guajava leaves with respective doses of 3000 mg/kg, 4000 mg/kg, or 5000 mg/kg, for 3 months, once daily). Following the intervention period, blood was taken from the heart and bone marrow was taken from the femur. Several parameters such as cell blood count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, were examined in the blood sample. Also, in the bone marrow sample, a relative count was performed on five hundred bone marrow cells and the ratio of myeloid to erythroid was determined in both control and experimental groups. The results of this study indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract somewhat increased white blood cells and red blood cells, but no significant change was observed. The result of the study revealed the positive effects of guava leaf extract may be due to flavonoids, quercetin and triterpenes, which strong antioxidants that can prevent damage are caused by free radicals destroying cells. This study shows that guava leaf extract can have a positive effect on hematological parameters, as well as the lack of mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in high doses of this plant extract rather reflects its safe use in traditional medicine. Therefore, it is recommended that guava leaf extract be considered as a complementary and alternative treatment for many diseases, including the treatment of anemia.
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