Document Type : Original Article


Department of Pharmacy Practice, Smt. Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Palamuru University, Sheshadri Nagar, Mahabubnagar District, Telangana, India


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is on the rise around the world and is strongly linked with the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This six-month observational study was conducted in the nephrology division of a 300-bed, multi-specialty tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 90 prescriptions written for inpatients and outpatients in the nephrology ward are considered based on the inclusion criteria. Patient case sheets, patient questionnaires and interviews, biomedical and radiological reports, and the medication regimen chart are the primary means of data gathering. In this study, we identified the patient's age, hypertension, lipid abnormalities, male gender, cigarette smoking, and family history as traditional risk factors for both CVD and CKD. Nearly 40% of 90 individuals had a high risk of CVD, followed by 25 with intermediate risk, 19 with borderline risk, and 6 with low risk. We further conclude that successful CKD and CVD therapy requires good glycemic control, anti-hypertensive medicine, and hypolipidemic medication. Diabetes patients received SGLT-2 inhibitors, which improve CKD and CVD. The development of chronic kidney disease to stages 4 and 5 is slowed by anti-hypertensive medication, particularly with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors such as angiotensin-receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Patients with persistent hypertension, albuminuria, or heart failure with a poor ejection fraction benefit from treatment with aldosterone receptor antagonists. People with chronic kidney disease benefit from low-dose aspirin for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Despite medication advancements, high blood pressure (BP) patients need a customised and evidence-based management plan to control BP, minimise CVD risk, and delay CKD progression. Early CKD treatment is essential for preventing the progression of both CKD and CVD.

Graphical Abstract

A study to assess the associated risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in chronic kidney disease


Main Subjects

Selected author of this article by journal

Dr. Bujagouni Swapna
Palamuru University


Open Access

This article is licensed under a CC BY License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


Publisher’s Note

CMBR journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional afflictions.


Letters to Editor

Given that CMBR Journal's policy in accepting articles will be strict and will do its best to ensure that in addition to having the highest quality published articles, the published articles should have the least similarity (maximum 15%). Also, all the figures and tables in the article must be original and the copyright permission of images must be prepared by authors. However, some articles may have flaws and have passed the journal filter, which dear authors may find fault with. Therefore, the editor of the journal asks the authors, if they see an error in the published articles of the journal, to email the article information along with the documents to the journal office.

CMBR Journal welcomes letters to the editor ([email protected], [email protected]) for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Critical letters can be sent to the journal editor as soon as the article is online. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] There is no limit to the number of words in a letter.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include Name, Email Address, Affiliation, mobile phone number, and Comments.

[7] Letters will be answered as soon as possible.

  1. Al-Zaidi HMH, Mousavinasab F, Radseresht N, Mirzaei AR, Moradi Y, Mahmoudifar M (2023) Investigation of GJB2 and SLC26A4 genes related to pendred syndrome genetic deafness patients. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 3 (3): 163-171. doi:
  2. Aziziaram Z, Bilal I, Zhong Y, Mahmod AK, Roshandel MR (2021) Protective effects of curcumin against naproxen-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat kidney tissue. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 1 (1): 23-32. doi: Https://
  3. Eknoyan G (2007) Chronic kidney disease definition and classification: the quest for refinements. Kidney International 72 (10): 1183-1185. doi:
  4. Chen TK, Knicely DH, Grams ME (2019) Chronic kidney disease diagnosis and management: a review. Jama 322 (13): 1294-1304. doi:
  5. Lameire NH, Levin A, Kellum JA, Cheung M, Jadoul M, Winkelmayer WC, Stevens PE, Caskey FJ, Farmer CKT, Ferreiro Fuentes A, Fukagawa M, Goldstein SL, Igiraneza G, Kribben A, Lerma EV, Levey AS, Liu KD, MaƂyszko J, Ostermann M, Pannu N, Ronco C, Sawhney S, Shaw AD, Srisawat N (2021) Harmonizing acute and chronic kidney disease definition and classification: report of a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Consensus Conference. Kidney International 100 (3): 516-526. doi:
  6. Hobson S, Arefin S, Witasp A, Hernandez L, Kublickiene K, Shiels P, Stenvinkel P (2023) Accelerated vascular aging in chronic kidney disease: the potential for novel therapies. Circulation Research 132 (8): 950-969. doi:
  7. Briasoulis A, Bakris GL (2013) Chronic kidney disease as a coronary artery disease risk equivalent. Current cardiology reports 15: 1-6. doi:
  8. Ahani H, Attaran S (2022) Therapeutic potential of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in medical sciences. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 2 (1): 22-32. doi:
  9. Alavi H, Zaheri F, Shahoei R (2023) Support and control during childbirth and attachment after birth in mothers referring to comprehensive health centers in Bijar, 2019. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 3 (1): 17-28. doi: Https://
  10. Agarwal R, Anker SD, Bakris G, Filippatos G, Pitt B, Rossing P, Ruilope L, Gebel M, Kolkhof P, Nowack C (2022) Investigating new treatment opportunities for patients with chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes: the role of finerenone. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 37 (6): 1014-1023. doi:
  11. Fox CS, Matsushita K, Woodward M, Bilo HJ, Chalmers J, Heerspink HJL, Lee BJ, Perkins RM, Rossing P, Sairenchi T (2012) Associations of kidney disease measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease in individuals with and without diabetes: a meta-analysis. The Lancet 380 (9854): 1662-1673. doi:
  12. Doosti-Moghaddam M, Miri HR, Ghahghaei A, Hajinezhad MR, Saboori H (2022) Effect of unripe fruit extract of Momordica charantia on total cholesterol, total triglyceride and blood lipoproteins in the blood of rats with hyperlipidemia. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 2 (2): 74-86. doi:
  13. Ercisli MF, Lechun G, Azeez SH, Hamasalih RM, Song S, Aziziaram Z (2021) Relevance of genetic polymorphisms of the human cytochrome P450 3A4 in rivaroxaban-treated patients. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 1 (1): 33-41. doi: Https://
  14. Bakris GL, Agarwal R, Anker SD, Pitt B, Ruilope LM, Rossing P, Kolkhof P, Nowack C, Schloemer P, Joseph A (2020) Effect of finerenone on chronic kidney disease outcomes in type 2 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine 383 (23): 2219-2229. doi:
  15. Rahbar-Karbasdehi E, Rahbar-Karbasdehi F (2021) Clinical challenges of stress cardiomyopathy during coronavirus 2019 epidemic. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 1 (2): 88-90. doi:
  16. Reddy PR, Poojitha G, Kavitha S, Samreen SL, Naseer A, Koteswari P, Soumya P (2022) A prospective observational study to assess the cardiac risk factors and treatment patterns in established heart diseases. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 2 (4): 265-275. doi: Https://
  17. Sumanth N, Soumya P, Tabassum A, Mamatha P, Yamini G, Meghamala K, Pravalika G (2023) A study to assess the co-morbidities and complications of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 3 (2): 107-113. doi: Https://
  18. Paisley KE, Beaman M, Tooke JE, Mohamed-Ali V, Lowe GDO, Shore AC (2003) Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in asymptomatic proteinuria. Kidney International 63 (2): 624-633. doi:
  19. Subbiah AK, Chhabra YK, Mahajan S (2016) Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease: a neglected subgroup. Heart Asia 8 (2): 56. doi:
  20. Stevens PE, Levin A, Members* KDIGOCKDGDWG (2013) Evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease: synopsis of the kidney disease: improving global outcomes 2012 clinical practice guideline. Annals of internal medicine 158 (11): 825-830. doi:
  21. Raghavan V, Anandh U (2023) Journey of a Patient with CKD in India. Kidney360 4 (5): 684-686. doi:
  22. Levin A, Bilous R, Coresh J (2013) Chapter 1: Definition and classification of CKD. Kidney Int Suppl 3 (1): 19-62. doi:
  23. John O, Gummudi B, Jha A, Gopalakrishnan N, Kalra OP, Kaur P, Kher V, Kumar V, Machiraju RS, Osborne N, Palo SK, Parameswaran S, Pati S, Prasad N, Rathore V, Rajapurkar MM, Sahay M, Tatapudi RR, Thakur JS, Venugopal V, Jha V (2021) Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in India: What Do We Know and Where We Need to Go. Kidney International Reports 6 (11): 2743-2751. doi:
  24. Kovesdy CP (2022) Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease: an update 2022. Kidney International Supplements 12 (1): 7-11. doi:
  25. Wanner C, Inzucchi SE, Lachin JM, Fitchett D, von Eynatten M, Mattheus M, Johansen OE, Woerle HJ, Broedl UC, Zinman B (2016) Empagliflozin and progression of kidney disease in type 2 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine 375 (4): 323-334. doi:
  26. FernándezBalsells MM, Sojo-Vega L, Ricart-Engel W (2017) Canagliflozin and cardiovascular and renal events in type 2 diabetes. The New England journal of medicine 377 (21): 2098. doi:
  27. American-Diabetes-Association (2018) American Diabetes Association. (2018) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2018 Abridged for Primary Care Providers. 36 (1): 14-37. doi:
  28. McCullough PA, Nowak RM, Foreback C, Tokarski G, Tomlanovich MC, Khoury N, Weaver WD, Sandberg KR, McCord J (2002) Emergency evaluation of chest pain in patients with advanced kidney disease. Archives of internal medicine 162 (21): 2464-2468. doi:
  29. Shlipak MG, Heidenreich PA, Noguchi H, Chertow GM, Browner WS, McClellan MB (2002) Association of renal insufficiency with treatment and outcomes after myocardial infarction in elderly patients. Annals of internal medicine 137 (7): 555-562. doi: