Document Type : Original Article


Department of Pharmacy Practice, Smt. Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Palamuru University, Sheshadri Nagar, Mahabubnagar District, Telangana, India



Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is on the rise around the world and is strongly linked with the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with stages 1–3 of CKD have a greater risk of cardiovascular events compared to the general population; those with stages 4–5 of CKD are at a significantly higher risk. The most common cause of mortality in this high-risk group is cardiovascular disease, compared to end-stage kidney disease (CKD stage 5). This six-month observational study was conducted in the nephrology division of a 300-bed, multi-specialty tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 90 prescriptions written for inpatients and outpatients in the nephrology ward are considered based on the inclusion criteria. Patient case sheets, patient questionnaires and interviews, biomedical and radiological reports, and the medication regimen chart are the primary means of data gathering. In this study, we identified the patient's age, hypertension, lipid abnormalities, male gender, cigarette smoking, and family history as traditional risk factors for both CVD and CKD. This study assessed CKD patients' heart disease risk using an ASCVD risk calculator. Nearly 40% of 90 individuals had a high risk of CVD, followed by 25 with intermediate risk, 19 with borderline risk, and 6 with low risk. We further conclude that successful CKD and CVD therapy requires good glycemic control, anti-hypertensive medicine, and hypolipidemic medication. Diabetes patients received SGLT-2 inhibitors, which improve CKD and CVD. The development of chronic kidney disease to stages 4 and 5 is slowed by anti-hypertensive medication, particularly with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors such as angiotensin-receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Patients with persistent hypertension, albuminuria, or heart failure with a poor ejection fraction benefit from treatment with aldosterone receptor antagonists. Ezetimibe and statin therapy for hypolipidemia have been shown to be beneficial for both CKD and CVD. People with chronic kidney disease benefit from low-dose aspirin for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Dialysis improved the results for several more patients. Despite medication advancements, high blood pressure (BP) patients need a customised and evidence-based management plan to control BP, minimise CVD risk, and delay CKD progression. Early CKD treatment is essential for preventing the progression of both CKD and CVD.

Graphical Abstract

A study to assess the associated risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in chronic kidney disease


Main Subjects

Selected author of this article by journal

Dr. Bujagouni Swapna
Palamuru University


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