Document Type : Original Article


1 Food Microbiology Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Pathobiology, Division of Medical Microbiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Foodborne diseases are a global problem that is spreading day by day. These diseases are one of the most common causes of death in children and the elderly. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of water and foodborne diseases in Kurdistan province for six months from April to September 2022. Stool samples from patients were collected in the laboratory in a special container containing 10% formalin preservative. 134 stool samples from 28 food outbreaks from Kurdistan province were analyzed for the type of infected bacteria. The research results were analyzed in SPSS-19 software. Among the 28 outbreaks in Kurdistan province during the two seasons of spring and summer, the highest number of outbreaks was in the summer season with 20 and then in the spring season with 8 outbreaks. The dominant age group was children under 10 years (%21) old and people between 20-30 years old, and the dominant gender group was men. The most common clinical symptoms were nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea and non-bloody diarrhea. It is important to know the type of bacteria that cause water and foodborne diseases in reducing outbreaks and treatment costs and applying necessary measures for control and prevention.

Graphical Abstract

Investigating outbreaks caused by foodborne diseases and determining common bacterial agents that cause them in Kurdistan province


Main Subjects

Selected author of this article by journal

Dr. Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal
Tehran University of Medical sciences

Google Scholar


Open Access

This article is licensed under a CC BY License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


Publisher’s Note

CMBR journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional afflictions.


Letters to Editor

Given that CMBR Journal's policy in accepting articles will be strict and will do its best to ensure that in addition to having the highest quality published articles, the published articles should have the least similarity (maximum 18%). Also, all the figures and tables in the article must be original and the copyright permission of images must be prepared by authors. However, some articles may have flaws and have passed the journal filter, which dear authors may find fault with. Therefore, the editor of the journal asks the authors, if they see an error in the published articles of the journal, to email the article information along with the documents to the journal office.

CMBR Journal welcomes letters to the editor ([email protected]) for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Critical letters can be sent to the journal editor as soon as the article is online. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] There is no limit to the number of words in a letter.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include Name, Email Address, Affiliation, mobile phone number, and Comments

[7] Letters will be answered as soon as possible

  1. Todd E (2014) Foodborne diseases: Overview of biological hazards and foodborne diseases. Encyclopedia of Food Safety 2014: 221–242. doi:
  2. Abebe E, Gugsa G, Ahmed M (2020) Review on Major Food-Borne Zoonotic Bacterial Pathogens. J Trop Med 2020: 4674235. doi:
  3. Ali S, Alsayeqh AF (2022) Review of major meat-borne zoonotic bacterial pathogens. Front Public Health 10: 1045599. doi:
  4. Cortes-Sanchez AJ, Espinosa-Chaurand LD, Diaz-Ramirez M, Torres-Ochoa E (2021) Plesiomonas: A Review on Food Safety, Fish-Borne Diseases, and Tilapia. TheScientificWorldJournal 2021: 3119958. doi:
  5. Labonté R, Mohindra K, Schrecker T (2011) The growing impact of globalization for health and public health practice. Annual review of public health 32: 263-283. doi:
  6. Bekun FV, Adedoyin FF, Lorente DB, Driha OM (2022) Designing policy framework for sustainable development in Next-5 largest economies amidst energy consumption and key macroeconomic indicators. Environmental science and pollution research international 29 (11): 16653-16666. doi:
  7. Jin L, Hu B (2022) Influencing factors of online products decision-making oriented to tourism economy under the guidance of consumer psychology. Frontiers in psychology 13: 950754. doi:
  8. Shaheen MNF (2022) The concept of one health applied to the problem of zoonotic diseases. Reviews in medical virology 32 (4): e2326. doi:
  9. Control CfD, Prevention (2018) National notifiable diseases surveillance system. 2017 annual tables of infectious disease data CDC Division of Health Informatics and Surveillance https://wonder cdc gov/nndss/static/2017/annual/2017-table2i html (accessed 19 January 2019). doi:
  10. Chen L, Sun L, Zhang R, Liao N, Qi X, Chen J (2022) Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks in Zhejiang Province, China, 2015–2020. BMC public health 22 (1): 1-9. doi:
  11. Wu Y-n, Liu X-m, Chen Q, Liu H, Dai Y, Zhou Y-j, Wen J, Tang Z-z, Chen Y (2018) Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks in China, 2003 to 2008. Food Control 84: 382-388. doi:
  12. Boleslawska I, Blaszczyk-Bebenek E, Jagielski P, Jagielska A, Przyslawski J (2021) Nutritional behaviors of women and men in Poland during confinement related to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Sci Rep 11 (1): 19984. doi:
  13. Garus-Pakowska A, Kolmaga A, Gaszynska E, Ulrichs M (2022) The Scale of Intoxications with New Psychoactive Substances over the Period 2014-2020-Characteristics of the Trends and Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Example of Lodz Province, Poland. Int J Environ Res Public Health 19 (8). doi:
  14. Hafezi F, Mohammadzadeh T, Pazoki R, Ranani KA, Sadjjadi SM (2022) Sero-Epidemiological Study of Human Hydatidosis in Semnan and Sorkheh, Semnan Province, Iran. Iran J Public Health 51 (6): 1411-1418. doi:
  15. Hua J, Zhang L, Gao D, Huang Y, Ning P, Cheng P, Li Y, Hu G (2020) Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among People Aged 18 Years and Over between 2013 and 2018 in Hunan, China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 17 (11). doi:
  16. Mousavi-Hasanzadeh M, Sarmadian H, Ghasemikhah R, Didehdar M, Shahdoust M, Maleki M, Taheri M (2020) Evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii infection in western Iran: seroepidemiology and risk factors analysis. Trop Med Health 48: 35. doi:
  17. Safaie N, Mirmohammadkhani M, Allahgholi Y, Behnam B, Abdollahi M (2022) Epidemiological study of suicidal patients referred to Kowsar Hospital in Semnan. J Family Med Prim Care 11 (6): 3084-3088. doi:
  18. Wright A, Richardson L, Mahon B, Rothenberg R, Cole D (2016) The rise and decline in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis outbreaks attributed to egg-containing foods in the United States, 1973–2009. Epidemiology & Infection 144 (4): 810-819. doi:
  19. Dallal MMS, Ehrampoush MH, Aminharati F, Tafti AAD, Yaseri M, Memariani M (2020) Associations between climatic parameters and the human salmonellosis in Yazd province, Iran. Environmental Research 187: 109706. doi:
  20. Akolkar JK, Matson JS (2023) Stress Responses in Pathogenic Vibrios and Their Role in Host and Environmental Survival. Advances in experimental medicine and biology 1404: 213-232. doi:
  21. Barnett-Neefs C, Sullivan G, Zoellner C, Wiedmann M, Ivanek R (2022) Using agent-based modeling to compare corrective actions for Listeria contamination in produce packinghouses. PLoS One 17 (3): e0265251. doi:
  22. Chaix E, Boni M, Guillier L, Bertagnoli S, Mailles A, Collignon C, Kooh P, Ferraris O, Martin-Latil S, Manuguerra JC, Haddad N (2022) Risk of Monkeypox virus (MPXV) transmission through the handling and consumption of food. Microbial risk analysis 22: 100237. doi:
  23. Igizeneza A, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW (2022) Village-Indigenous Chicken Bacterial Carriage after the Heavy Rains of 2018, Kenya: Indicator on Environmental Contamination with Pathogenic/Zoonotic Bacteria. Veterinary medicine international 2022: 5437171. doi:
  24. Valiant WG, Cai K, Vallone PM (2022) A history of adventitious agent contamination and the current methods to detect and remove them from pharmaceutical products. Biologicals : journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization 80: 6-17. doi:
  25. Soltan Dallal MM, Motalebi S, Asl HM, Forushani AR, Yazdi MKS, Rajabi Z, Aghili N (2015) Analysis of epidemiological data of foodborne outbreak reported in Iran. Tehran University Medical Journal 72 (11): 780-788. doi:
  26. Garcia MT, Sato PM, Trude AC, Eckmann T, Steeves ETA, Hurley KM, Bógus CM, Gittelsohn J (2018) Factors associated with home meal preparation and fast-food sources use among low-income urban African American adults. Ecology of food and nutrition 57 (1): 13-31. doi:
  27. Greig J, Ravel A (2009) Analysis of foodborne outbreak data reported internationally for source attribution. International journal of food microbiology 130 (2): 77-87. doi:
  28. Soltan Dallal MM, Sharifi Yazdi MK, Monadi Sefidan A, Hassanpour G, Sharifi Yazdi S, Haghighat Khajavi S, Vahedi S, Abrichamchian Langaroudi SM, Pourmoradian M, Molla Agha Mirzaei H (2022) Biotyping of Yersiniaenterocolitica Isolates from Children with Diarrhea and Chicken Meat in Tehran, Iran (2016-17). Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences 24 (1): 94-99. doi:
  29. Mehrnaz M, Mohammad MSD, Ramin MNF, Hossein MA, Mahdieh P (2021) Prevalence of SEA and SEB producing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foodborne-outbreaks in Iran. African Journal of Microbiology Research 15 (10): 535-542. doi:
  30. Marino DD (2007) Water and food safety in the developing world: global implications for health and nutrition of infants and young children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107 (11): 1930-1934. doi:
  31. El Allaoui A, Rhazi F, Essahale A, Bouchrif B, Karraouan B, Ameur N, Aboulkacem A (2013) Characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes and identification by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of Salmonella serovars isolated from turkey meat in Meknes, Morocco. Int J Microbiol Immunol Res 1: 68-79. doi:
  32. Kozak G, MacDonald D, Landry L, Farber J (2013) Foodborne outbreaks in Canada linked to produce: 2001 through 2009. Journal of food protection 76 (1): 173-183. doi:
  33. Koluman A, Dikici A (2013) Antimicrobial resistance of emerging foodborne pathogens: status quo and global trends. Critical reviews in microbiology 39 (1): 57-69. doi:
  34. Todd E (2020) Food-borne disease prevention and risk assessment. vol 17. MDPI. doi:
  35. Rosati S, Saba A (2004) The perception of risks associated with food‐related hazards and the perceived reliability of sources of information. International journal of food science & technology 39 (5): 491-500. doi:
  36. Kurpas M, Wieczorek K, Osek J (2018) Ready-to-eat Meat Products As a Source of Listeria Monocytogenes. J Vet Res 62 (1): 49-55. doi:
  37. Melo J, Quintas C (2023) Minimally processed fruits as vehicles for foodborne pathogens. AIMS microbiology 9 (1): 1-19. doi:
  38. Schrobback P, Zhang A, Loechel B, Ricketts K, Ingham A (2023) Food Credence Attributes: A Conceptual Framework of Supply Chain Stakeholders, Their Motives, and Mechanisms to Address Information Asymmetry. Foods 12 (3). doi:
  39. Vidovic S, Paturi G, Gupta S, Fletcher GC (2022) Lifestyle of Listeria monocytogenes and food safety: Emerging listericidal technologies in the food industry. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr: 1-19. doi: