Document Type : Meta Analysis


Smt. Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Seshadrinagar, Mahabubnagar, Telangana 509001, India


The study aimed to assess established and non-established risk factors and drug therapy problems in the cardiology department and perform a Prospective Observational Study. The study was conducted for a period of 6 months from September 2019 to February 2020 in 200 patients with established heart diseases attending a tertiary care hospital in the cardiology department. A patient interview was conducted using an evaluation form. Among 100 patients with established cardiovascular diseases that were engaged in this study, a high number of patients were males and the majority of the patients were in the age group ‘Between’ 41-60 years. This study shows smoking and alcohol consumption is the most common risk factors in males, hypertension was the mainly 'established' risk factor for cardiovascular disease followed by Angina and Myocardial infarction. Among non-established risk factors, CKD was the main risk factor in cardiovascular disease followed by cardiovascular accidents. ACE Inhibitors and BB are the drugs mainly used in cardiovascular diseases followed by statins and diuretics. This study throws light on the statistical evidence among the age group and gender risk factors, and drug utilization. In the course of this study use of drug pattern was as follows: Anticoagulants are used in (29%) patients, ACE in (22.5%) patients, Antiplatelets in (68%) patients, diuretic in (34%) patients, Statins in (57%) patients, BB in (67.5%) patients, PPI in (22%) patients, CCB in (19.5%) patients, Nitrates (26.5%) patients, OHA (25%) patients. Similar findings in other studies (Blessy Rachel Thomas) (26) on drug therapy usage were found. There is a need to assess both non-established and established risk factors among patients with established heart diseases as in this study, CKD and HTN were the most common peril and counsel patients about their risk factors and social habits and lifestyle changes. There is a need for a clinical pharmacist to counsel about lifestyle changes and assess drug therapy utilization patterns in cardiac patients.  

Graphical Abstract

A prospective observational study to assess the cardiac risk factors and treatment patterns in established heart diseases


Main Subjects


Selected author of this article by journal

Dr. poluri koteswari
Smt Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy

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