Document Type : Review Article
1 Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded 431606, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Applied Microbiology, CAS in Botany, Institute of Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Soil microbial flora has a pivotal role in the phyto-availability of phosphorus and other necessary minerals and nutrients. The primary class of Rhizobacteria involved in the solubilization of phosphate from non-available forms to available forms is Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB). The application of Phosphate solubilizing bacteria increased phosphorus availability, which is one of the major factors responsible for the increase in the yield of crops. The phosphorus content is higher in the seeds than in the other plant parts; it helps plants in disease resistance and stress management such as winter rigors and improves the quality of fruits, vegetables, and cereal crops. Application of PSB as the biofertilizers positively affects the secretion of siderophores, nitrogen fixation, Indole acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, chitinase, and protease. PSB can solubilize useful phosphate from rock phosphate and phosphate present in the combined state in lower to higher pH range (4 to 10), lower to a higher temperature (20 to 40 0C), and even in the higher salt ranges (0 to 7.5 % NaCl). Microbes help in the assimilation of phosphates and hydrocarbons by the secretions of different phosphatases such as monoesterase, diesterases, C-P lyase, and phosphatase and phytases. Using chemical P fertilizer in sustainable agricultural methods needs to be reduced. For this purpose, alternative and inexpensive technology are required so that plants can be provided with a sufficient amount of P. Phosphate solubilizing microbes can be an excellent option to replace chemical P fertilizers for improved agricultural production and soil fertility. The fertility of farm fields can be improved by using PSB as the bio-fertilizer and it will enhance the nutritional quality of plants and plant products which are directly or indirectly taken as food. Applying these microbes to soil/seeds makes good quality fruits and can help to fulfill the nutritional hunger of the world.
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