Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Research and Development Department, Giga Biotics, San Diego, California, USA

2 Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq

3 Department of Mathematics, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Zhejiang, China

4 Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospitals, NY, USA

10.55705/cmbr.2021.138879.1001

Abstract

Naproxen is a common analgesic and antipyretic medication that is widely used around the world. This medicine at high doses leads to liver and kidney necrosis in humans and animals. The mechanism of kidney damage, unlike liver damage, is not well understood and is one of the most common causes of emergency department patients. Therefore, in the present study, the protective effect of curcumin, a compound derived from turmeric, was investigated on renal damage caused by naproxen. For this purpose, 25 male Wistar rats were selected and were randomly divided into five groups. Naproxen was dissolved in a 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution and was injected intraperitoneally at 1000 mg/kg of animal weight. Also, curcumin was dissolved in 5% DMSO and was injected within peritoneum at a dose of 200 mg/kg of animal weight into the relevant groups.  After 24 hours of injection, rats were bled and plasma urea and creatinine levels were measured. The rate of lipid peroxidation, the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the kidney, total plasma antioxidant capacity, and PGC-1α gene expression were measured. The results showed that naproxen significantly increased the levels of biochemical markers of urea and creatinine in plasma and lipid peroxidation in the kidney; also, it decreased the activity of the antioxidants enzymes. The use of curcumin in naproxen-exposed groups significantly reduced the concentrations of urea, creatinine, and lipid peroxidation. Curcumin increased the activity of catalase, superoxide enzymes, and the total antioxidant capacity of plasma. Also, curcumin increased the expression of the PGC-1α gene, which reduces the effects of naproxen. Therefore, according to the current study results, curcumin could significantly reduce the harmful effects of naproxen on the kidneys. However, in future studies, the effect of curcumin should be evaluated on the naproxen mechanism in the treatment of those patients who need naproxen.

Graphical Abstract

Protective effects of curcumin against naproxen-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat kidney tissue

Keywords

Main Subjects

Selected author of this article by journal

ِDr. Zahra Aziziaram
University of San Diego

Google Scholar

Open Access

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

 

Publisher’s Note

CMBR journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional afflictions.

 

Letters to Editor

Given that CMBR Journal's policy in accepting articles will be strict and will do its best to ensure that in addition to having the highest quality published articles, the published articles should have the least similarity (maximum 18%). Also, all the figures and tables in the article must be original and the copyright permission of images must be prepared by authors. However, some articles may have flaws and have passed the journal filter, which dear authors may find fault with. Therefore, the editor of the journal asks the authors, if they see an error in the published articles of the journal, to email the article information along with the documents to the journal office.

CMBR Journal welcomes letters to the editor ([email protected]) for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Critical letters can be sent to the journal editor as soon as the article is online. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.


[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] There is no limit to the number of words in a letter.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include Name, Email Address, Affiliation, mobile phone number, and Comments

[7] Letters will be answered as soon as possible

  1. Sadrjavadi K, Shahlaei M, Bahrami G, Majnooni MB, Mohebbi M (2015) Comparison of correlation ranking and eigenvalue ranking unfolded principal component regression for direct determination of naproxen in human serum using excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society 12(6):967-977. doi:http://doi.org/10.1007/s13738-014-0559-7
  2. Czech B, Kończak M, Rakowska M, Oleszczuk P (2021) Engineered biochars from organic wastes for the adsorption of diclofenac, naproxen and triclosan from water systems. Journal of Cleaner Production 288:125686. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.125686
  3. Al-Zoubi N, Odeh F, Partheniadis I, Gharaibeh S, Nikolakakis I (2021) Spray drying of naproxen and naproxen sodium for improved tableting and dissolution–physicochemical characterization and compression performance. Pharmaceutical Development and Technology 26(2):193-208. doi:http://doi.org/10.1080/10837450.2020.1853769
  4. Magni A, Agostoni P, Bonezzi C, Massazza G, Menè P, Savarino V, Fornasari D (2021) Management of osteoarthritis: expert opinion on NSAIDs. Pain and Therapy):1-26. doi:http://doi.org/10.1007/s40122-021-00260-1
  5. García‐Martín E, García‐Menaya JM, Esguevillas G, Cornejo‐García JA, Doña I, Jurado‐Escobar R, Torres MJ, Blanca‐López N, Canto G, Blanca M (2021) Deep sequencing of prostaglandin‐endoperoxide synthase (PTGE) genes reveals genetic susceptibility for cross‐reactive hypersensitivity to NSAID. British Journal of Pharmacology 178(5):1218-1233. doi:http://doi.org/10.1111/bph.15366
  6. Liu M, Guo M-N, Chen L-H (2021) Research advances of prostaglandin E 2 synthases and receptors in cardiovascular diseases. Sheng li xue bao:[Acta Physiologica Sinica] 73(4):665-680. doi:http://doi.org/10.1042/BST20140016
  7. Nishi O (2021) Comment on: Intraindividual comparison of cytokine and prostaglandin levels with and without low-energy, high-frequency femtosecond laser cataract pretreatment after single-dose topical NSAID application. Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery 47(2):280-281. doi:http://doi.org/10.1097/j.jcrs.0000000000000573
  8. Bernardi M, Lazzeri L, Perelli F, Reis FM, Petraglia F (2017) Dysmenorrhea and related disorders. F1000Research 6. doi:http://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.11682.1
  9. Hall JE, do Carmo JM, da Silva AA, Wang Z, Hall ME (2019) Obesity, kidney dysfunction and hypertension: mechanistic links. Nature reviews nephrology 15(6):367-385. doi:http://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-019-0145-4
  10. Dizaji R, Sharafi A, Pourahmad J, Vatanpour S, Hosseini M-J, Vatanpour H (2020) The effects of Hemiscorpius lepturus induced-acute kidney injury on PGC-1α gene expression: From induction to suppression in mice. Toxicon 174:57-63. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.12.154
  11. Fontecha‐Barriuso M, Martín‐Sánchez D, Martinez‐Moreno JM, Carrasco S, Ruiz‐Andrés O, Monsalve M, Sanchez‐Ramos C, Gómez MJ, Ruiz‐Ortega M, Sánchez‐Niño MD (2019) PGC‐1α deficiency causes spontaneous kidney inflammation and increases the severity of nephrotoxic AKI. The Journal of pathology 249(1):65-78. doi:http://doi.org/10.1002/path.5282
  12. Katsouri L, Parr C, Bogdanovic N, Willem M, Sastre M (2011) PPARγ co-activator-1α (PGC-1α) reduces amyloid-β generation through a PPARγ-dependent mechanism. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 25(1):151-162. doi:http://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2011-101356
  13. Sriperumbuduri S, Hiremath S (2019) The case for cautious consumption: NSAIDs in chronic kidney disease. Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension 28(2):163-170. doi:http://doi.org/10.1097/MNH.0000000000000473
  14. Hörl WH (2010) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the kidney. Pharmaceuticals 3(7):2291-2321. doi:http://doi.org/10.3390/ph3072291
  15. Ejaz P, Bhojani K, Joshi V (2004) NSAIDs and kidney. Japi 52(632-640):371. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/ph3072291
  16. S Darvesh A, B Aggarwal B, Bishayee A (2012) Curcumin and liver cancer: a review. Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 13(1):218-228. doi:http://doi.org/10.2174/138920112798868791
  17. Li S, Wang X, Xiao Y, Wang Y, Wan Y, Li X, Li Q, Tang X, Cai D, Ran B (2021) Curcumin ameliorates mercuric chloride-induced liver injury via modulating cytochrome P450 signaling and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 208:111426. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111426
  18. Abraham P (2005) Vitamin C may be beneficial in the prevention of paracetamol-induced renal damage. Clinical and experimental nephrology 9(1):24-30. doi:http://doi.org/10.1007/s10157-004-0335-6
  19. Niki E (2008) Lipid peroxidation products as oxidative stress biomarkers. Biofactors 34(2):171-180. doi:http://doi.org/10.1002/biof.5520340208
  20. McCord JM, Fridovich I (1969) Superoxide dismutase: an enzymic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprein). Journal of Biological chemistry 244(22):6049-6055. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(18)63504-5
  21. Aebi H (1983) Catalase. Catalase In: Bergmeyer, HU, Ed, Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Verlag Chemie, Weinhem):273- 286. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(84)05016-3
  22. Prior RL, Gu L, Wu X, Jacob RA, Sotoudeh G, Kader AA, Cook RA (2007) Plasma antioxidant capacity changes following a meal as a measure of the ability of a food to alter in vivo antioxidant status. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 26(2):170-181. doi:http://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2007.10719599
  23. Costes SV, Daelemans D, Cho EH, Dobbin Z, Pavlakis G, Lockett S (2004) Automatic and quantitative measurement of protein-protein colocalization in live cells. Biophysical journal 86(6):3993-4003. doi:http://doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.103.038422
  24. Hunter LJ, Wood DM, Dargan PI (2011) The patterns of toxicity and management of acute nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) overdose. Open access emergency medicine: OAEM 3:39. doi:http://doi.org/10.2147/OAEM.S22795
  25. Weir MR (2002) Renal effects of nonselective NSAIDs and coxibs. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine 69(1):53-58. doi:http://doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.69.suppl_1.si53
  26. Whelton A, Schulman G, Wallemark C, Drower EJ, Isakson PC, Verburg KM, Geis GS (2000) Effects of celecoxib and naproxen on renal function in the elderly. Archives of Internal Medicine 160(10):1465-1470. doi:http://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.160.10.1465
  27. Kovacevic L, Bernstein J, Valentini RP, Imam A, Gupta N, Mattoo TK (2003) Renal papillary necrosis induced by naproxen. Pediatric Nephrology 18(8):826-829. doi:http://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-003-1167-4
  28. Castaño PR, Parween S, Pandey AV (2019) Bioactivity of curcumin on the cytochrome P450 enzymes of the steroidogenic pathway. International journal of molecular sciences 20(18):4606. doi:http://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184606
  29. Reddy ACP, Lokesh B (1994) Effect of dietary turmeric (Curcuma longa) on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat liver. Food and chemical toxicology 32(3):279-283. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(94)90201-1
  30. Chainoglou E, Hadjipavlou-Litina D (2020) Curcumin in health and diseases: Alzheimer’s disease and curcumin analogues, derivatives, and hybrids. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21(6):1975. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21061975
  31. Jiang M, Wei Q, Pabla N, Dong G, Wang C-Y, Yang T, Smith SB, Dong Z (2007) Effects of hydroxyl radical scavenging on cisplatin-induced p53 activation, tubular cell apoptosis and nephrotoxicity. Biochemical pharmacology 73(9):1499-1510. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2007.01.010
  32. Weisel T, Baum M, Eisenbrand G, Dietrich H, Will F, Stockis JP, Kulling S, Rüfer C, Johannes C, Janzowski C (2006) An anthocyanin/polyphenolic‐rich fruit juice reduces oxidative DNA damage and increases glutathione level in healthy probands. Biotechnology Journal: Healthcare Nutrition Technology 1(4):388-397. doi:http://doi.org/10.1002/biot.200600004
  33. Abuhijleh AL, Khalaf J (2010) Copper (II) complexes of the anti-inflammatory drug naproxen and 3-pyridylmethanol as auxiliary ligand. Characterization, superoxide dismutase and catecholase–mimetic activities. European journal of medicinal chemistry 45(9):3811-3817. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2010.05.031
  34. Ahmad MH, Fatima M, Hossain M, Mondal AC (2018) Evaluation of naproxen-induced oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity and in-vivo genotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Journal of pharmaceutical analysis 8(6):400-406. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2018.04.002
  35. Rakotoarisoa M, Angelov B, Espinoza S, Khakurel K, Bizien T, Angelova A (2019) Cubic liquid crystalline nanostructures involving catalase and curcumin: BioSAXS study and catalase peroxidatic function after cubosomal nanoparticle treatment of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Molecules 24(17):3058. doi:http://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173058
  36. Najjar FM, Ghadari R, Yousefi R, Safari N, Sheikhhasani V, Sheibani N, Moosavi-Movahedi AA (2017) Studies to reveal the nature of interactions between catalase and curcumin using computational methods and optical techniques. International journal of biological macromolecules 95:550-556. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.11.050
  37. Gómez-Estaca J, Balaguer M, López-Carballo G, Gavara R, Hernández-Muñoz P (2017) Improving antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of curcumin by means of encapsulation in gelatin through electrohydrodynamic atomization. Food Hydrocolloids 70:313-320. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2017.04.019
  38. Salimi A, Neshat MR, Naserzadeh P, Pourahmad J (2019) Mitochondrial permeability transition pore sealing agents and antioxidants protect oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by naproxen, diclofenac and celecoxib. Drug research 69(11):598-605. doi:http://doi.org/10.1055/a-0866-9356
  39. Wang X, Shen K, Wang J, Liu K, Wu G, Li Y, Luo L, Zheng Z, Hu D (2020) Hypoxic preconditioning combined with curcumin promotes cell survival and mitochondrial quality of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and accelerates cutaneous wound healing via PGC-1α/SIRT3/HIF-1α signaling. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 159:164-176. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.07.023
  40. Silva J, Spatz MH, Folk C, Chang A, Cadenas E, Liang J, Davies DL (2021) Dihydromyricetin improves mitochondrial outcomes in the liver of alcohol-fed mice via the AMPK/Sirt-1/PGC-1α signaling axis. Alcohol 91:1-9. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2020.10.002