Document Type : Review Article


1 Clinical Research Development Center, Taleghani and Imam Ali Hospitals, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3 Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Innovative Science and Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

4 Medical Biology Research Center, Health Technologies Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

5 Hazrat Masoumeh Hospital, Social Security Organization, Kermanshah, Iran

6 Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


In this review, we will discuss the neuroimaging findings of patients with COVID-19 from the outbreak (late December 2019) to the end of October 2021. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, ProQuest, Web of Science and the World Health Organization database (January 01, 2020, to October 30, 2021) were searched for related published articles. In each of the databases, the appendix search strategies were performed and the below keywords were used: COVID-19”OR“coronavirus disease 2019” AND “brain MRI” OR “brain magnetic resonance imaging” OR “brain CT” OR “neuroimaging”. In total, neuroimaging findings of 1550 patients, with ages from 1-96 years, were analyzed. Most brain neuroimaging findings include hyperintensity, Cerebral venous thrombosis, intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage, infarction, leukoencephalopathy, acute ischemic strokes and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in adult patients and severe encephalopathy, stroke, infarction, CNS infection/demyelination, neuritis or polyradiculitis, venous thrombosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and longitudinally extensive myelitis, and myositis in pediatric patients. Our findings showed that the most important complication of the coronavirus is not just respiratory complications, because although transiently, COVID-19-related brain complications are seen in pediatrics as well as adults, and families should pay more attention to health care.

Graphical Abstract

COVID-19 and Brain complications in adult and pediatric patients: A review on neuroimaging findings


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ِDr. Reza Fatahian
Kermanshah University of Medical Scienes

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