Document Type : Original Article
- Leli Rezaie-Kahkhaie 1
- Khadije Saravani 2
- Khadije Rezaie-Keikhaie 3
- Seyed Esmaeil Azimi-Khatibani 4
- Abdul Hafiz Daman-Sooz 5
- Mehdi Afshari 6
- Atefeh kamali 7
1 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Amir al momenin Hospital, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran
2 Forensic medicine and toxicology, Zabol University of medical sciences, Zabol, Iran.
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Faculty, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran
4 Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran
5 Student Research Committee, zabol university of Medical Sciences, zabol, Iran
6 Social Medicine Department, Medical Facuty, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran
7 Department of Microbiology, Medical Faculty- Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran
Today, due to the increase in life expectancy in HIV-infected patients, the incidence of related diseases such as hepatitis B and C due to similarity in transmission routes has become a major concern of the health community. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B among HIV + patients in Zabol. This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 37 HIV-infected patients in Zabol city (2021-2022). In the present study, HIV-infected patients were screened for hepatitis B by measuring serum levels of HBC Ab and HBs Ag. Finally, the data in SPSS V21 software were analyzed. In the present study, a total of 37 HIV-infected patients with a mean age of 40.81- 11.64 years were evaluated. The present study's prevalence of HIV and HCV co-infection was 21.6%. Also, 13.5% of HIV patients had HBV and HCV simultaneously. Examination of risk factors for viral hepatitis in HIV-infected patients showed that unprotected sex (100%), injecting drug use or IDU (87.5%), dental procedures (75%), history of imprisonment (62.5%) and tattooing (50.5%) were the most common factors in HIV patients. Family history of hepatitis B (12.5%), alcohol (12.5%), transfusion (12.5%) and cupping (25%) were among the lowest cases in these patients. the frequency of HBV infection and co-infection with HCV and HBV in HIV-positive patients were relatively high. Except for the history of tattoos, there is no significant relationship between other risk factors and hepatitis B among HIV-positive patients.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
CMBR journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional afflictions.
Letters to Editor
Given that CMBR Journal's policy in accepting articles will be strict and will do its best to ensure that in addition to having the highest quality published articles, the published articles should have the least similarity (maximum 18%). Also, all the figures and tables in the article must be original and the copyright permission of images must be prepared by authors. However, some articles may have flaws and have passed the journal filter, which dear authors may find fault with. Therefore, the editor of the journal asks the authors, if they see an error in the published articles of the journal, to email the article information along with the documents to the journal office.
CMBR Journal welcomes letters to the editor ([email protected]) for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Critical letters can be sent to the journal editor as soon as the article is online. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.
 Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
 Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
 There is no limit to the number of words in a letter.
 Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
 Anonymous letters will not be considered.
 Letter writers must include Name, Email Address, Affiliation, mobile phone number, and Comments
 Letters will be answered as soon as possible
- Indolfi G, Easterbrook P, Dusheiko G, Siberry G, Chang M-H, Thorne C, Bulterys M, Chan P-L, El-Sayed MH, Giaquinto C (2019) Hepatitis B virus infection in children and adolescents. The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology 4(6):466-476. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30042-1
- Thitipatarakorn S, Chinbunchorn T, Peelay J, Seekaew P, Amatavete S, Sangsai M, Pankam T, Avihingsanon A, Avery M, Phanuphak P (2022) Prevalence and the associated factors of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viral infections among HIV-positive individuals in same-day antiretroviral therapy initiation program in Bangkok, Thailand. BMC Public Health 22(1):1-9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-12429-6
- Thio CL, Seaberg EC, Skolasky Jr R, Phair J, Visscher B, Muñoz A, Thomas DL (2002) HIV-1, hepatitis B virus, and risk of liver-related mortality in the Multicenter Cohort Study (MACS). The Lancet 360(9349):1921-1926. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11913-1
- Barin F (2022) HIV/AIDS as a model for emerging infectious disease: origin, dating and circumstances of an emblematic epidemiological success. La Presse Médicale):104128. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2022.104128
- Kenfack-Momo R, Kenmoe S, Takuissu GR, Ebogo-Belobo JT, Kengne-Ndé C, Mbaga DS, Tchatchouang S, Oyono MG, Kenfack-Zanguim J, Lontuo Fogang R (2022) Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis C virus infections among people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one 17(5):e0269250. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0269250
- Crowell TA, Gebo KA, Balagopal A, Fleishman JA, Agwu AL, Berry SA, Network HR (2014) Impact of hepatitis co-infection on hospitalization rates and causes in a multi-center cohort of persons living with HIV. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 65(4):429. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097%2FQAI.0000000000000059
- Matthews PC, Geretti AM, Goulder PJ, Klenerman P (2014) Epidemiology and impact of HIV coinfection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of clinical virology 61(1):20-33. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2014.05.018
- Liang X, Bi S, Yang W, Wang L, Cui G, Cui F, Zhang Y, Liu J, Gong X, Chen Y (2009) Epidemiological serosurvey of hepatitis B in China—declining HBV prevalence due to hepatitis B vaccination. Vaccine 27(47):6550-6557. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.08.048
- Zhang L, Guo J, Duan K (2019) Comparative analysis of the safety and efficacy of HBsAg-1018 versus HBsAg-Eng: A meta-analysis. Central European Journal of Immunology 44(4):455-462. doi:https://doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2019.92808
- Wang H, Men P, Xiao Y, Gao P, Lv M, Yuan Q, Chen W, Bai S, Wu J (2019) Hepatitis B infection in the general population of China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC infectious diseases 19(1):1-10. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4428-y
- Song C, Lv J, Liu Y, Chen JG, Ge Z, Zhu J, Dai J, Du L-B, Yu C, Guo Y (2019) Associations between hepatitis B virus infection and risk of all cancer types. JAMA network open 2(6):e195718-e195718. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.5718
- Hui C, Nan L, Ji ZH, Pu ZS, Guo ZW, Jie G, Shao ZJ, Liu YW, Yan YP (2020) Assessment on the effects of hepatitis B prevention and control measures in western China: a comparison of three population-based serosurveys. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 33(10):735-744. doi:https://doi.org/10.3967/bes2020.098
- Hou C, Hua Z, Xu P, Xu H, Wang Y, Liao J, Di B (2020) Estimating the prevalence of hepatitis B by wastewater-based epidemiology in 19 cities in China. Science of the Total Environment 740:139696. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139696
- Ayana DA, Mulu A, Mihret A, Seyoum B, Aseffa A, Howe R (2020) Occult Hepatitis B virus infection among HIV negative and positive isolated anti-HBc individuals in eastern Ethiopia. Scientific reports 10(1):1-9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79392-x
- Hamilton E, Yang L, Mentzer AJ, Guo Y, Chen Y, Lv J, Fletcher R, Wright N, Lin K, Walters R (2022) Conventional and genetic risk factors for chronic Hepatitis B virus infection in a community-based study of 0.5 million Chinese adults. Scientific reports 12(1):1-11. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-16360-7
- Sun X, Zhu Y, Tang F, Deng X, Wang Z, Liu Y (2021) Analysis of epidemiological serosurvey of hepatitis B virus among people under 29 years of age in Jiangsu Province, China. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics 17(10):3729-3734. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1928461
- Miao Z, Zhang S, Ou X, Li S, Ma Z, Wang W, Peppelenbosch MP, Liu J, Pan Q (2020) Estimating the global prevalence, disease progression, and clinical outcome of hepatitis delta virus infection. The Journal of infectious diseases 221(10):1677-1687. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz633
- Dias J, Hengst J, Parrot T, Leeansyah E, Lunemann S, Malone DF, Hardtke S, Strauss O, Zimmer CL, Berglin L (2019) Chronic hepatitis delta virus infection leads to functional impairment and severe loss of MAIT cells. Journal of hepatology 71(2):301-312. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2019.04.009
- Dore GJ, Soriano V, Rockstroh J, Kupfer B, Tedaldi E, Peters L, Neuhaus J, Puoti M, Klein MB, Mocroft A (2010) Frequent hepatitis B virus (HBV) rebound among HIV–HBV coinfected patients following antiretroviral therapy interruption in the SMART study. AIDS (London, England) 24(6):857. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097%2FQAD.0b013e328334bddb
- Singh KP, Crane M, Audsley J, Lewin SR (2017) HIV-Hepatitis B virus co-infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment. AIDS (London, England) 31(15):2035. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097%2FQAD.0000000000001574
- Leumi S, Bigna JJ, Amougou MA, Ngouo A, Nyaga UF, Noubiap JJ (2020) Global burden of hepatitis B infection in people living with human immunodeficiency virus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical infectious diseases 71(11):2799-2806. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz1170
- Kafeero HM, Ndagire D, Ocama P, Walusansa A, Sendagire H (2020) Sero-prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus–hepatitis B virus (HIV–HBV) co-infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the associated risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Virology journal 17(1):1-19. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01443-6
- Ataei B, Tayeri K, Kassaian N, Farajzadegan Z, Babak A (2010) Hepatitis B and C among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Isfahan, Iran: seroprevalence and associated factors. Hepatitis monthly 10(3):188. doi:PMCID: PMC3269083; PMID: 22308138
- Nokhodian Z, Meshkati M, Adibi P, Ataei B, Kassaian N, Yaran M, Shoaei P, Hassannejad R (2012) Hepatitis C among intravenous drug users in Isfahan, Iran: a study of seroprevalence and risk factors. International journal of preventive medicine 3(Suppl1):S131. doi:PMCID: PMC3399288; PMID: 22826755
- Tien PC (2005) Management and Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in HIV-Infected Adults: Recommendations from the Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and National Hepatitis C Program Office: 1. Official journal of the American College of Gastroenterology| ACG 100(10):2338-2354
- Alavi SM, Etemadi A (2007) HIV/HBV, HIV/HCV and HIV/HTLV-1 co infection among injecting drug user patients hospitalized at the infectious disease ward of a training hospital in Iran. PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES 23(4):510-513
- Ejele O, Nwauche C, Erhabor O (2004) The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in HIV positive patients in the Niger Delta Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Medicine: Journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria 13(2):175-179. doi:PMID: 15293840
- Yang H, Li X, Stanton B, Liu H, Liu H, Wang N, Fang X, Lin D, Chen X (2005) Heterosexual transmission of HIV in China: a systematic review of behavioral studies in the past two decades. Sexually transmitted diseases 32(5):270. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097%2F01.olq.0000162360.11910.5a
- Li X, Stanton B, Fang X, Lin D, Mao R, Wang J, Cottrell L, Harris C (2004) HIV/STD risk behaviors and perceptions among rural-to-urban migrants in China. AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education 16(6):538. doi:https://doi.org/10.1521%2Faeap.16.6.538.53787
- Alam MM, Zaidi SZ, Malik SA, Shaukat S, Naeem A, Sharif S, Angez M, Butt JA (2007) Molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus genotypes in Pakistan. BMC infectious diseases 7(1):1-6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-7-115
- Weng MK, Doshani M, Khan MA, Frey S, Ault K, Moore KL, Hall EW, Morgan RL, Campos‐Outcalt D, Wester C (2022) Universal hepatitis B vaccination in adults aged 19–59 years: Updated recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices—United States, 2022. American Journal of Transplantation 22(6):1714-1720. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16661