Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran


Different groups of enzymes and regulatory elements are involved in the synthesis of Ribodioside A, which is one of the most important sweetening compounds in stevia. The UGT family (UDP-glycosyltransferase) is a group of regulatory genes that are very effective in converting steviol glycoside to Ribodioside A. Bioinformatics analyses on this gene family, which included the UGT74G1, UGT76G1, and UGT85C2 genes, showed that the protein encoded by these genes had a UDPGT protected protein domain. Also, the study of the secondary structure of these proteins showed that the total corrosion of these proteins is mainly from alpha-helix and random screws or loops that are connected with linear strands. Also, the study of the secondary structure of these proteins showed that the total corrosion of these proteins is mainly from alpha-helix and random screws or loops that are connected with linear strands. The results of studying the three-dimensional structure of the studied proteins confirmed the previous findings of high genomic similarity between these proteins. The results of the ProtScale program showed that the abundance of amino acids with negative hydropathicity in the sequence of these proteins is high, which is effective in creating plant resistance to drought stress. Finally, the codon preference trend of these proteins was investigated using the sequence manipulation suite database. This information can be used for other research, including the transfer of these proteins.

Graphical Abstract

Bioinformatics analysis and pharmacological effect of Stevia rebaudiana in the prevention of type-2 diabetes


Main Subjects

Selected author of this article by journal

ِDr. Alireza Mirzaei
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili


Open Access

This article is licensed under a CC BY License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


Publisher’s Note

CMBR journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional afflictions.


Letters to Editor

Given that CMBR Journal's policy in accepting articles will be strict and will do its best to ensure that in addition to having the highest quality published articles, the published articles should have the least similarity (maximum 15%). Also, all the figures and tables in the article must be original and the copyright permission of images must be prepared by authors. However, some articles may have flaws and have passed the journal filter, which dear authors may find fault with. Therefore, the editor of the journal asks the authors, if they see an error in the published articles of the journal, to email the article information along with the documents to the journal office.

CMBR Journal welcomes letters to the editor ([email protected], [email protected]) for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Critical letters can be sent to the journal editor as soon as the article is online. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.

[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.

[3] There is no limit to the number of words in a letter.

[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.

[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.

[6] Letter writers must include Name, Email Address, Affiliation, mobile phone number, and Comments.

[7] Letters will be answered as soon as possible.

  1. Jaitak V, Bandna BS, Kaul yV (2009) An efficient microwave-assisted extraction process of stevioside and rebaudioside-A from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Phytochemical Analysis 20(3):240-245. doi:
  2. Yang T, Zhang J, Ke D, Yang W, Tang M, Jiang J, Cheng G, Li J, Cheng W, Wei Y (2019) Hydrophobic recognition allows the glycosyltransferase UGT76G1 to catalyze its substrate in two orientations. Nature communications 10(1):1-12. doi:
  3. Saravani K, Afshari M, Aminisefat A, Bameri O (2021) Blood Sugar Changes in Patients with Acute Drug Poisoning. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 1(2):91-97. doi:
  4. Fathi A, Barak M, Damandan M, Amani F, Moradpour R, Khalilova I, Valizadeh M (2021) Neonatal Screening for Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Deficiency in Ardabil Province, Iran, 2018-2019. Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Reports 1(1):1-6. doi:10.55705/cmbr.2021.138793.1000
  5. Kim MJ, Zheng J, Liao MH, Jang I-C (2019) Overexpression of Sr UGT 76G1 in Stevia alters major steviol glycosides composition towards improved quality. Plant biotechnology journal 17(6):1037-1047. doi:
  6. Reddy V, Urooj A, Kumar A (2005) Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts and their application in biscuits. Food chemistry 90(1-2):317-321. doi:
  7. Brandle J, Telmer P (2007) Steviol glycoside biosynthesis. Phytochemistry 68(14):1855-1863. doi:
  8. Kumar H, Kaul K, Bajpai-Gupta S, Kaul VK, Kumar S (2012) A comprehensive analysis of fifteen genes of steviol glycosides biosynthesis pathway in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Gene 492(1):276-284. doi:
  9. Richman A, Swanson A, Humphrey T, Chapman R, McGarvey B, Pocs R, Brandle J (2005) Functional genomics uncovers three glucosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of the major sweet glucosides of Stevia rebaudiana. The Plant Journal 41(1):56-67. doi:
  10. He D, Wang S, Fang G, Zhu Q, Wu J, Li J, Shi D, Lian X (2022) LXRs/ABCA1 activation contribute to the anti-inflammatory role of phytosterols on LPS-induced acute lung injury. Journal of Functional Foods 89:104966. doi:
  11. Chaturvedula VSP, Upreti M, Prakash I (2011) Structures of the novel α-glucosyl linked diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana. Carbohydrate research 346(13):2034-2038. doi:
  12. Yu J, Tao Y, Pan H, Lin L, Sun J, Ma R, Li Y, Jia H (2022) Mutation of Stevia glycosyltransferase UGT76G1 for efficient biotransformation of rebaudioside E into rebaudioside M. Journal of Functional Foods 92:105033. doi:
  13. Petit E, Berger M, Camborde L, Vallejo V, Daydé J, Jacques A (2020) Development of screening methods for functional characterization of UGTs from Stevia rebaudiana. Scientific reports 10(1):1-10. doi:
  14. Tadhani M, Patel V, Subhash R (2007) In vitro antioxidant activities of Stevia rebaudiana leaves and callus. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 20(3-4):323-329. doi:
  15. Behzadmehr R, Rezaie-Keikhaie K (2022) Evaluation of Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis Among Women With Diabetes. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 2(1):56-63. doi:10.55705/cmbr.2022.336572.1036
  16. Chatsudthipong V, Muanprasat C (2009) Stevioside and related compounds: therapeutic benefits beyond sweetness. Pharmacology & therapeutics 121(1):41-54. doi:
  17. Salehi-Sardoei A, Khalili H (2022) Nitric oxide signaling pathway in medicinal plants. Cell Mol Biomed Rep 2(1):1-9. doi:10.55705/cmbr.2022.330292.1019
  18. Azeez SH, Jafar SN, Aziziaram Z, Fang L, Mawlood AH, Ercisli MF (2021) Insulin-producing cells from bone marrow stem cells versus injectable insulin for the treatment of rats with type I diabetes. Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Reports 1(1):42-51. doi:10.55705/cmbr.2021.138888.1006
  19. Ceunen S, Geuns JM (2013) Steviol glycosides: chemical diversity, metabolism, and function. Journal of natural products 76(6):1201-1228. doi:
  20. Lee SG, Salomon E, Yu O, Jez JM (2019) Molecular basis for branched steviol glucoside biosynthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116(26):13131-13136. doi: