Document Type : Original Article
Department of Biology, College of Education, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil, Iraq
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan region, Iraq
Research and Development Department, Giga Biotics, San Diego, California, USA
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of medical, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Zhejiang, China
Medical Microbiology Department, College of Health Sciences, Hawler Medical University, Hawler, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Basaksehir Cam and Sakura City Hospital, University of Health Science, Istanbul, Turkey
Recently, stem cells have been considered renewable cell sources in the treatment of diabetes and the development of insulin-producing cells. In this regard, the current study aimed to compare Insulin-producing cells from bone marrow stem cells with injectable insulin in rats with type I diabetes. For this purpose, 40 rats were divided into four groups: the control or healthy group, the diabetic control group, the group that received differentiated insulin-producing cells from bone marrow, and the group that received insulin treatment. To differentiate insulin-producing cells from bone marrow, the femoral bone marrow of rats was extracted using the flushing method. Differentiated cells were evaluated using dithizone-specific dye, anti-insulin-proinsulin antibodies, and anti-insulin beta receptors. Also, the expression of the pdx-I gene, as the specific gene of pancreatic cells, was examined by RT-PCR. The results showed that transplantation of insulin-producing cells could significantly increase blood insulin levels in diabetic rats. This increase intensified in the second stage of transplantation when more cells were injected into rats. Concerning decreasing blood sugar levels, differentiated cells were able to reduce blood sugar levels significantly. Even in the first stage of cell injection, in which the rats received a small number of cells, their blood sugar levels were controlled by these cells. As a result, the present study showed that repeated transplants of insulin-producing cells differentiated from bone marrow could decrease blood sugar and increase insulin levels.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
CMBR journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional afflictions.
Letters to Editor
Given that CMBR Journal's policy in accepting articles will be strict and will do its best to ensure that in addition to having the highest quality published articles, the published articles should have the least similarity (maximum 18%). Also, all the figures and tables in the article must be original and the copyright permission of images must be prepared by authors. However, some articles may have flaws and have passed the journal filter, which dear authors may find fault with. Therefore, the editor of the journal asks the authors, if they see an error in the published articles of the journal, to email the article information along with the documents to the journal office.
CMBR Journal welcomes letters to the editor ([email protected]) for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Critical letters can be sent to the journal editor as soon as the article is online. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.
 Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
 Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
 There is no limit to the number of words in a letter.
 Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
 Anonymous letters will not be considered.
 Letter writers must include Name, Email Address, Affiliation, mobile phone number, and Comments
 Letters will be answered as soon as possible
- Pal R, Banerjee M (2021) Are people with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus at high risk of reinfections with COVID-19? Primary care diabetes 15(1):18-20
- khajeh h, Bahari A, Rashki A (2021) TCF7L2 Polymorphisms in Type 2 Diabetes, Insight from HRM and ARMS Techniques. Int J Adv Biol Biomed Res 9(3):204-214. doi:https://doi.org/10.22034/ijabbr.2021.525681.1351
- Suwanwongse K, Shabarek N (2021) Newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, DKA, and COVID‐19: Causality or coincidence? A report of three cases. Journal of medical virology 93(2):1150-1153
- Oriot P, Hermans MP (2020) Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in a patient with type 1 diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia: case report and review of the literature. Acta Clinica Belgica):1-5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/17843286.2020.1780390
- Barron E, Bakhai C, Kar P, Weaver A, Bradley D, Ismail H, Knighton P, Holman N, Khunti K, Sattar N (2020) Associations of type 1 and type 2 diabetes with COVID-19-related mortality in England: a whole-population study. The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology 8(10):813-822. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30272-2
- Cerna M (2020) Epigenetic regulation in etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21(1):36. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010036
- Jerram ST, Leslie RD (2017) The genetic architecture of type 1 diabetes. Genes 8(8):209. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8080209
- Group JDRFCGMS (2008) Continuous glucose monitoring and intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine 359(14):1464-1476
- Bellofatto K, Moeckli B, Wassmer C-H, Laurent M, Oldani G, Andres A, Berney T, Berishvili E, Toso C, Peloso A (2021) Bioengineered Islet Cell Transplantation. Current Transplantation Reports):1-10
- Johnson PR, Brandhorst D (2021) Pancreas and Islet Cell Transplantation. Pediatric Surgery: General Pediatric Surgery, Tumors, Trauma and Transplantation):407-420
- Migliorini A, Nostro MC, Sneddon JB (2021) Human pluripotent stem cell-derived insulin-producing cells: A regenerative medicine perspective. Cell Metabolism 33(4):721-731. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.03.021
- Damyar K, Farahmand V, Whaley D, Alexander M, Lakey JR (2021) An overview of current advancements in pancreatic islet transplantation into the omentum. Islets):1-6. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/19382014.2021.1954459
- Lanzoni G, Ricordi C (2021) Transplantation of stem cell-derived pancreatic islet cells. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 17(1):7-8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41574-020-00430-9
- Khan MS, Cuda S, Karere GM, Cox LA, Bishop AC (2021) Breath biomarkers of insulin resistance in pre-diabetic Hispanic adolescents with obesity. MedRxiv). doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.23.21259399
- Costa LA, Eiro N, Fraile M, Gonzalez LO, Saá J, Garcia-Portabella P, Vega B, Schneider J, Vizoso FJ (2021) Functional heterogeneity of mesenchymal stem cells from natural niches to culture conditions: implications for further clinical uses. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 78(2):447-467. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-020-03600-0
- Nobre AR, Risson E, Singh DK, Di Martino JS, Cheung JF, Wang J, Johnson J, Russnes HG, Bravo-Cordero JJ, Birbrair A (2021) Bone marrow NG2+/Nestin+ mesenchymal stem cells drive DTC dormancy via TGF-β2. Nature Cancer 2(3):327-339
- Fiorina P, Jurewicz M, Augello A, Vergani A, Dada S, La Rosa S, Selig M, Godwin J, Law K, Placidi C (2009) Immunomodulatory function of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in experimental autoimmune type 1 diabetes. The journal of Immunology 183(2):993-1004. doi:https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0900803
- Refaie AF, Elbassiouny BL, Kloc M, Sabek OM, Khater SM, Ismail AM, Mohamed RH, Ghoneim MA (2021) From Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells to Insulin-Producing Cells: Immunological Considerations. Frontiers in Immunology 12
- Shrestha M, Nguyen TT, Park J, Choi JU, Yook S, Jeong J-H (2021) Immunomodulation effect of mesenchymal stem cells in islet transplantation. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 142:112042
- Karimi-Shahri M, Javid H, Sharbaf Mashhad A, Yazdani S, Hashemy SI (2021) Mesenchymal stem cells in cancer therapy; the art of harnessing a foe to a friend. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences)
- Hwa AJ, Weir GC (2018) Transplantation of macroencapsulated insulin-producing cells. Current diabetes reports 18(8):1-7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1028-y
- Qi W, Wang G, Wang L (2021) A novel satiety sensor detects circulating glucose and suppresses food consumption via insulin-producing cells in Drosophila. Cell research 31(5):580-588. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-00449-7
- Enderami SE, Soleimani M, Mortazavi Y, Nadri S, Salimi A (2018) Generation of insulin‐producing cells from human adipose‐derived mesenchymal stem cells on PVA scaffold by optimized differentiation protocol. Journal of cellular physiology 233(5):4327-4337. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.26266
- Nishikawa G, Kawada K, Nakagawa J, Toda K, Ogawa R, Inamoto S, Mizuno R, Itatani Y, Sakai Y (2019) Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote colorectal cancer progression via CCR5. Cell death & disease 10(4):1-13
- Nakano M, Kubota K, Kobayashi E, Chikenji TS, Saito Y, Konari N, Fujimiya M (2020) Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve cognitive impairment in an Alzheimer’s disease model by increasing the expression of microRNA-146a in hippocampus. Scientific reports 10(1):1-15. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67460-1
- Hamidabadi HG, Shafaroudi MM, Seifi M, Bojnordi MN, Behruzi M, Gholipourmalekabadi M, Shafaroudi AM, Rezaei N (2018) Repair of critical-sized rat calvarial defects with three-dimensional hydroxyapatite-gelatin scaffolds and bone marrow stromal stem cells. Medical Archives 72(2):88-93. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.5455%2Fmedarh.2018.72.88-93
- Mitutsova V, Yeo WWY, Davaze R, Franckhauser C, Hani E-H, Abdullah S, Mollard P, Schaeffer M, Fernandez A, Lamb NJ (2017) Adult muscle-derived stem cells engraft and differentiate into insulin-expressing cells in pancreatic islets of diabetic mice. Stem cell research & therapy 8(1):1-14. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-017-0539-9
- Zhu Y, Liu Q, Zhou Z, Ikeda Y (2017) PDX1, Neurogenin-3, and MAFA: critical transcription regulators for beta cell development and regeneration. Stem cell research & therapy 8(1):1-7
- Sugiyama Y, Sato Y, Kitase Y, Suzuki T, Kondo T, Mikrogeorgiou A, Horinouchi A, Maruyama S, Shimoyama Y, Tsuji M (2018) Intravenous administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, but not adipose tissue-derived stem cell, ameliorated the neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by changing cerebral inflammatory state in rat. Frontiers in neurology 9:757
- Hagger V, Hendrieckx C, Cameron F, Pouwer F, Skinner TC, Speight J (2018) Diabetes distress is more strongly associated with HbA1c than depressive symptoms in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES Youth—Australia. Pediatric diabetes 19(4):840-847. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12641
- Tao L, Chunyou W, Chidan W, Jiongxin X, Yiqin X, Feng Z (2004) PDX-1 expression in pancreatic ductal cells after partial pancreatectomy in adult rats. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences] 24(5):464-466
- Choi KS, Shin J-S, Lee J-J, Kim YS, Kim S-B, Kim C-W (2005) In vitro trans-differentiation of rat mesenchymal cells into insulin-producing cells by rat pancreatic extract. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 330(4):1299-1305. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.03.111
- Control CfD, Prevention (2019) Chronic kidney disease in the United States, 2019. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Dendup T, Feng X, Clingan S, Astell-Burt T (2018) Environmental risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. International journal of environmental research and public health 15(1):78. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010078
- Aali E, Mirzamohammadi S, Ghaznavi H, Madjd Z, Larijani B, Rayegan S, Sharifi AM (2014) A comparative study of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation with its paracrine effect on control of hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetic rats. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders 13(1):1-10. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-6581-13-76
- Urbán VS, Kiss J, Kovács J, Gócza E, Vas V, Monostori Ė, Uher F (2008) Mesenchymal stem cells cooperate with bone marrow cells in therapy of diabetes. Stem cells 26(1):244-253
- Ezquer FE, Ezquer ME, Parrau DB, Carpio D, Yañez AJ, Conget PA (2008) Systemic administration of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells reverts hyperglycemia and prevents nephropathy in type 1 diabetic mice. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 14(6):631-640. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.01.006
- Li Y-Y, Liu H-H, Chen H-L, Li Y-P (2012) Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate STZ-induced pancreas damage in type 1 diabetes. Bio-medical materials and engineering 22(1-3):97-103. doi:https://doi.org/10.3233/BME-2012-0694