DNA, RNA, protein components
Masoud Tourang; Le Fang; Yuan Zhong; Ram Chandra Suthar
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers known, and it is also a significant cause of death in women. If breast cancer is diagnosed in the early stages of the disease and treated appropriately, we can see an increase in life expectancy for more than 90% of patients. Research on molecular biomarkers ...
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers known, and it is also a significant cause of death in women. If breast cancer is diagnosed in the early stages of the disease and treated appropriately, we can see an increase in life expectancy for more than 90% of patients. Research on molecular biomarkers with enough sensitivity and specificity can be a good solution for rapid diagnosis in the clinical stage. Meanwhile, endogenous retroviral biomarkers can have good functional benefits. Human Endogenous Retroviruses as heterochromatin fragments of the genome usually lack expression, but in several types of human cancers, including breast cancer, HERV-Kenv mRNA is significantly increased. This study used RT-PCR to detect the expression of HERV-K mRNA and tried to introduce screening tools for the early detection of breast cancer. In this case-control study, blood samples of 50 patients with hospitalized breast cancer and 50 healthy individuals were designed to evaluate the expression of HERV-Kenv mRNA using specific primers and were analyzed by RT-PCR. PCR test was optimized as a positive control using Hela cancer cell line (cervical adenocarcinoma), which expresses the HERV-Kenv gene. Studies on both patient and control groups showed that the increase in mRNA expression was positive in 64% of patients with breast cancer and negative in all healthy individuals. The results indicate an increase in the expression of endogenous human retroviruses (HERVs) in breast cancer. Because the amount of HERV-Kenv mRNA in the blood of breast cancer patients increases dramatically, it is predicted that these mobile genetic elements could be used as a diagnostic biomarker.
Gene Expression Studies
Zahra Aziziaram; Ismael Bilal; Yuan Zhong; Azzadin Kamal Mahmod; Mohammad Reza Roshandel
Naproxen is a common analgesic and antipyretic medication that is widely used around the world. This medicine at high doses leads to liver and kidney necrosis in humans and animals. The mechanism of kidney damage, unlike liver damage, is not well understood and is one of the most common causes of emergency ...
Naproxen is a common analgesic and antipyretic medication that is widely used around the world. This medicine at high doses leads to liver and kidney necrosis in humans and animals. The mechanism of kidney damage, unlike liver damage, is not well understood and is one of the most common causes of emergency department patients. Therefore, in the present study, the protective effect of curcumin, a compound derived from turmeric, was investigated on renal damage caused by naproxen. For this purpose, 25 male Wistar rats were selected and were randomly divided into five groups. Naproxen was dissolved in a 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution and was injected intraperitoneally at 1000 mg/kg of animal weight. Also, curcumin was dissolved in 5% DMSO and was injected within peritoneum at a dose of 200 mg/kg of animal weight into the relevant groups. After 24 hours of injection, rats were bled and plasma urea and creatinine levels were measured. The rate of lipid peroxidation, the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the kidney, total plasma antioxidant capacity, and PGC-1α gene expression were measured. The results showed that naproxen significantly increased the levels of biochemical markers of urea and creatinine in plasma and lipid peroxidation in the kidney; also, it decreased the activity of the antioxidants enzymes. The use of curcumin in naproxen-exposed groups significantly reduced the concentrations of urea, creatinine, and lipid peroxidation. Curcumin increased the activity of catalase, superoxide enzymes, and the total antioxidant capacity of plasma. Also, curcumin increased the expression of the PGC-1α gene, which reduces the effects of naproxen. Therefore, according to the current study results, curcumin could significantly reduce the harmful effects of naproxen on the kidneys. However, in future studies, the effect of curcumin should be evaluated on the naproxen mechanism in the treatment of those patients who need naproxen.